In 2018, 15.3% of employees in the European Union (EU) were low-wage earners (this means that they earned two-thirds or less of their national median gross hourly earnings) compared to 16.4% in 2014.
18.2% of female employees were low-wage earners in 2018, compared with 12.5% of male employees.
In 2014, 19.9% among female employees and 13.2% among males were low wage earners.
Highest share of low-wage earners in Latvia, lowest in Sweden
The proportion of low wage earners varied significantly among EU States in 2018.
The highest share was observed in Latvia (23.5%), followed by Lithuania (22.3%), Estonia (22.0%), Poland (21.9%) and Bulgaria (21.4%).
In contrast, less than 10% of employees were low-wage earners in Sweden (3.6%), Portugal (4.0%), Finland (5.0%), Italy (8.5%), France (8.6%) and Denmark (8.7%).
Low-wage earners accounted for more than a quarter (26.3%) of employees aged less than 30.
The proportion of low-wage earners in the older age groups was much less, at 13.9% in the 50 and above age group and 12.6% in the 30-49 age group.
More than a quarter (27.1%) of employees in the EU with a low education level were low-wage earners.
Fewer employees with a medium level of education were low-wage earners (18.0% of employees), while low-wage earners accounted for just 4.6% of employees with a high education level.
For employees whose contract of employment was of limited duration, 28.1% were low-wage earners, compared with 12.8% of those with an indefinite contract.